Answers and Explanations
- 21. Validity is a measure of the repeatability of a test’s scores. False
22. Psychologists need to re-standardize tests every few years in order to match school curricula. TRUE
23. On average females have higher IQs than males. False
24. The Flynn effect is the decrease in IQ scores over generations. False
25. Cross-sectional studies follow a single group of individuals as they develop. False
26. Six to eight-month old infants do not understand object permanence. True
27. Piaget believed that children’s thought differs quantitatively from adult’s thought. True
28. Infants develop attachment to significant people in their lives as measured by the Strange Situation. True
29. Terror management theory deals with how people cope with their fear of dying. True
30. In a society where most everyone becomes a farmer, identity foreclosure would be common. True
- Reliability of a measurement refers to its repeatability. If you carry out a measurement on the same thing twice and get the same or close results, this is described as reliability. Validity on the other hand refers to whether the measurements measures what it is intended for.
- Activities that are carried out in schools is changing day after day based on the various needs that the school intends to meet. Therefore, tests need to be re-standardized after a given period of time to ensure it tests significant-only.
- Recent studies indicate that males have higher IQs than females by 3-5 IQ points. Reference: The role of height in the sex difference in intelligence.
- Kanazawa S1, Reyniers DJ.
- According to the Flynn effect, IQ increases by 10 points every generation. This implies that people in 1950 were less smart than current generation.
- Cross-sectional studies follow different groups of people making comparisons over time. It considers people who do not share the same variable of interest.
- According to Jean Piaget, object performance develops after the baby is about 8 months old. It refers to the concept that things continue to exist even when they are not felt, seen, or heard.
- Piaget was the first individual to note that children think differently from adults. According to his studies, intelligence develops through a series of stages.
- Strange situation is a procedure devised by Mary Ainsworth which observed the attachment that children develop to significant people like caregivers.
- Terror Management Theory argues that people cope with their own motality through religion. Arguments that give people more hope of life after death reducing effects of mortality salience.
- Identity foreclosure is a situation when someone has their identity for instance to become a farmer, but has not explored other options.
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