gram-negative rods, is a medically important phenomenon. This
most commonly occurs by a process that involves a sex pilus and
the subsequent transfer of plasmids carrying one or more transposons.
Which one of the following is the name that best describes
pieces of their DNA in a process called programmed rearrangements.
Which one of the following is the most important
known consequence of this ability?
(A) The number of plasmids increases significantly, which greatly
enhances antibiotic resistance.
(B) The amount of endotoxin increases significantly, which greatly
enhances the ability to cause septic shock.
(C) The surface antigens of the bacteria vary significantly, which
greatly enhances the ability to avoid opsonization by antibody.
(D) The ability of the bacterium to be lysogenized is significantly
increased, which greatly enhances the ability to produce
increased amounts of exotoxins.
(E) The ability of the bacterium to survive intracellularly is greatly
(A) They encode enzymes that degrade the ends of the bacterial
(B) They are short sequences of DNA that often encode enzymes
that mediate antibiotic resistance.
(C) They are short sequences of RNA that silence specific regulatory
(D) They are a family of transfer RNAs that enhance mutations at
“hot spots” in the bacterial genome.
diphtheria toxin. The gene encoding the toxin is integrated
into bacterial genome during lysogenic conversion. The toxin gene
was acquired by which process?