of transmission from one person to another. Infection by which
one of the following bacteria is most likely to be interrupted by
(A) Borrelia burgdorferi
(B) Legionella pneumophila
(C) Staphylococcus aureus
(D) Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus)
(E) Treponema pallidum
mother to fetus or newborn child. Infection by which one of the
following bacteria is most likely to be transmitted vertically?
(A) Chlamydia trachomatis
(B) Clostridium tetani
(C) Haemophilus influenzae
(D) Shigella dysenteriae
(E) Streptococcus pneumonia
whereas the cells involved with granulomatous inflammation
are mainly macrophages and helper T cells. Infection by
which one of the following bacteria is most likely to elicit granulomatous
(A) Escherichia coli
(B) Mycobacterium tuberculosis
(C) Neisseria gonorrhoeae
(D) Streptococcus pyogenes
(E) Staphylococcus aureus
endotoxins is correctly matched?
(A) Exotoxins—polypeptides; endotoxins—lipopolysaccharide
(B) Exotoxins—weakly antigenic; endotoxins—highly antigenic
(C) Exotoxins—produced only by gram-negative bacteria; endotoxins—
produced only by gram-positive bacteria
(D) Exotoxins—weakly toxic per microgram; endotoxins—highly
toxic per microgram
(E) Exotoxins—toxoid vaccines are ineffective; endotoxins—toxoid
vaccines are effective
produce exotoxins that increase cyclic AMP within human cells?
(A) Vibrio cholerae and Corynebacterium diphtheriae
(B) Clostridium perfringens and Streptococcus pyogenes
(C) Escherichia coli and Bordetella pertussis
(D) Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Staphylococcus aureus
(E) Bacillus anthracis and Staphylococcus epidermidis
that act by ADP-ribosylation?
(A) Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Escherichia coli
(B) Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus
(C) Clostridium tetani and Bacillus anthracis
(D) Enterococcus faecalis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
(E) Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogenes
the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction?
(A) Bacillus anthracis
(B) Bordetella pertussis
(C) Clostridium botulinum
(D) Corynebacterium diphtheriae
(E) Escherichia coli
acute appendicitis. He then had a sudden rise in temperature to
39C and a sudden fall in blood pressure. Which one of the following
is the most likely cause of the fever and hypotension?
(A) An exotoxin that ADP-ribosylates elongation factor-2
(B) An exotoxin that stimulates production of large amounts of
(C) An endotoxin that causes release of tumor necrosis factor
(D) An endotoxin that binds to class I MHC protein
(E) An exoenzyme that cleaves hyaluronic acid
drug consisting of monoclonal antibody to lipid A. Sepsis caused
by which one of the following sets of bacteria is most likely to be
improved following administration of this antibody?
(A) Bordetella pertussis and Clostridium perfringens
(B) Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis
(C) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus anthracis
(D) Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus
(E) Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus
(A) Endotoxin is a polypeptide, the toxic portion of which consists
of two d-alanines.
(B) Endotoxin is produced by both gram-positive cocci as well as
(C) Endotoxin acts by binding to class II MHC proteins and the
variable portion of the beta chain of the T-cell receptor.
(D) Endotoxin causes fever and hypotension by inducing the
release of interleukins such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis
(E) The antigenicity of endotoxin resides in its fatty acid side