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In what way does operant conditioning differ from classical conditioning?
A. Classical conditioning can be used to train animals to make responses they would not normally make; operant conditioning cannot be used to do this.
B. In classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus (US) arrives after the conditioned stimulus (CS) regardless of the animal’s behavior, while in operant conditioning the reinforce or punisher arrives only after the animal has made a particular response.
C. Extinction occurs in classical conditioning but not in operant conditioning.
D. In classical conditioning, learning is fastest during the early trials, while in operant conditioning learning is fastest during the later trials.

  • In classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus (US) arrives after the conditioned stimulus (CS) regardless of the animal’s behavior, while in operant conditioning the reinforce or punisher arrives only after the animal has made a particular response.
    Classical conditioning pairs a naturally existing stimulus and a previously neutral stimulus. For instance, a previously neutral stimulus such as sound of a bell and an unconditioned stimulus such as the taste of food. The unconditioned stimulus triggers a response such as salivating and after association, the sound of the bell will cause the same response when administered alone. In operant conditioning, punishment or reinforcement comes after a behavior to either encourage the behavior or discourage it.



A person operating a slot machine will probably make many responses at a fast rate, slowing only briefly following reward (i.e., hitting the “jackpot”). The schedule of reinforcement operating in this example is a _____ schedule.

  • Variable ratio
    IN operant conditioning, a variable ratio schedule is a schedule of reinforcement whereby the response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. There is no defined time for the individual to win the jackpot, so this is a variable schedule. This creates a steady and high rate of responding.



Which of the following power bases primarily comes from a person’s position or managerial level in an organization?
A. Referent power
B. Legitimate power
C. Expert power
D. Information power

  • Legitimate power
    Legitimate power is also known as the positional power because it comes from the position of an individual in any hierarchy. Every organization has its hierarchy detailing who reports to who. Who is up in the hierarchy has more power over those down his/her position. Such individuals who hold power to assign duties to the juniors have a legitimate power.



One reason that profit sharing plans may NOT be effective is that:
a. it is difficult for employees to see how their individual performance affects the   company’s total output.
b. profit sharing always yields very small monetary amounts.
c. they have been found to decrease levels of worker output.
d. they are paid on a fixed ratio schedule.

  • it is difficult for employees to see how their individual performance affects the   company’s total output.
    Profit sharing is a way to encourage higher productivity and hence higher earnings. However, there are several disadvantages with profit sharing among them the fact that the worker cannot see any strong link between their performance and that of the organization. This is a group incentive, and so does not work well in promoting individuals performance.





The five steps for evaluating a training program do NOT include


  1. setting criteria.


  1. choosing a design.


  1. analyzing and interpreting results.


  1. conducting a performance appraisal of the trainees


  • conducting a performance appraisal of the trainees


The first step is setting a criteria or purpose of the evaluation. What is the reason for the evaluation. The second step is selecting the evaluation method, which is how you are going to collect the data whether through interviews or observation. The third step is designing the evaluation tools by considering the use of information and best method to collect feedback. Fourth step is to collect data and the final step is to analyze the data and report the results.






Which of the following statements about emotional labor is true?


  1. The form of emotional labor performed can affect both employees and customers who observe it.


  1. The negative effects of surface acting are greater for women than men.


  1. Deep acting can have positive effects on well-being.


  1. All of the above.


  • All of the above.


Surface acting has negative impact on the well-being of the employee while deep acting has a significant positive impact on the employee well-being. The nature of service a customer gets from the employees is critical in determining the customers' perceptions of service quality, both of goods and services. Women are more likely to work in service and professional industries where more emotional labor is needed, so the negative effects of faking emotions are worse for women.






A dog in a classical conditioning experiment salivates to a continuous buzzer but not to a single bell ring. This is an example of ____.​


  • stimulus discrimination


This is described as stimulus discrimination whereby an organism has the ability to respond to specific and in most cases, the original stimulus or conditioned stimulus, and not responding to other similar stimuli. The dog responds to the continuous buzzer and fails to respond to the single ring. it is discriminating the stimulus.






How does Erikson's psychoanalytic theory differ from that of Freud?

  1. It is described as psychosexual.
  2. It focuses on psychosocial stages influenced by common cultural demands.
  3. "It is based on libidial energy and incorporates the concepts of id, ego, and superego.
  4. "It includes both a phallic and genital stage.
  5. It states that a child's success depends on interaction with people and objects.


  • It focuses on psychosocial stages influenced by common cultural demands.


Erikson's concept incorporated cultural and social aspects into Freud's biological and sexually oriented theory. His theory was concerned with how society affects childhood and development including studied on children in societies. Freud's theory emphasized importance of basic needs and biological forces. Another difference was the fact that Freud's theory extended to adulthood while Erikson's theory ends at an earlier period.






You just received a low mark for pyc1501 assignment and suddenly feel.discouraged.what kind of emotions are you experiencing?

1.secondary emotion

2.primary emotions

3.positive emotions

4.negative emotion


  • primary emotions


This immediate reaction is a primary emotion. Secondary emotions are the feelings you have about the primary emotion. In the above scenario, the reaction to the low mark is discouragement, which is directly connected to the event or stimulus hence a primary emotion.






The metho of improving memory by summarising aloud while you are learning is called?



3.whole learning

4.spaced practice


  • recitation


There are various ways if improving memory. One most popular method is summarizing aloud what you have just read or what you are learning. This forces the mind to practice retrieving information. The more times the same thing is repeated, the better chances of storing the information in the long term memory.






Which of the following expectations of women has been shown to produce feelings of shame and low self-esteem?

  1. that they should exert time and effort into beautifying their appearance
  2. that they should embrace communal and nurturing roles
  3. that they are less athletic and physically capable
  4. that they are less skilled in math


  • that they should exert time and effort into beautifying their appearance


Some women experience pressure when physical attributes are considered representing the greatest value as a person. The society considers women as representation of beauty and hence there is always pressure. They are preoccupied with their appearance, which is both harmful and potential disempowering. This causes numerous poor mental health outcomes among women.







The cells in the fovea have two functions: (1) to send information to the brain and (2) to modulate that information. Which of the cells listed below function to send visual information up to the thalamus?

Select one:

  1. amacrine cells
  2. horizontal cells
  3. bipolar cells


  • horizontal cells


The horizontal cells receive information from the photoreceptors and transmits it to a number of surrounding bipolar neurons. After this, the bipolar cells transmit the impulse to amacrine cells. The horizontal cells are responsible in receiving impulse from photoreceptors and transmitting to the bipolar cells. These cells are mainly involved in helping the eye adjust to changes in light by changing transmission of impulse during bright and low light conditions.







The two main kinds of emotional regulation strategies are


  • Antecedent focused and response focused.


Emotion categories can be grouped into two main categories which are the antecedent-focused and response-focused.

The antecedent focused includes the following four categories:

  • Situation selection
  • situation modification
  • attentional deployment
  • Cognitive change

All of these take place before generation of an emotional response.

The last categories that fall under response-focused strategies includes response modulation which takes place when an emotional response is fully generated.





the one- tailed test has a(n) _____ at one end of the t distribution that is twice the size of the two

  1. critical region
  2. a level
  3. p value
  4. degree of freedom


  • critical region


One tailed test has a p value that is half the p value of the two-tailed test. This follows the fact that one-tailed test has critical region at one end of the t-distribution which is twice the critical region in a two-tailed test. The critical region defines the values or region the test statistic is unlikely to lie.





A protective factor against sexual risk-taking in African American adolescents is



involvement in religion.


positive adult role models.


all of these.


positive peer role models.


  • all of these.


Sexual choices and practices of African-American adolescents are influenced several factors whether negatively or positively. Factors that helps these adolescents avoid engaging in sexual activities includes involvement in religion. Religion does not support sex for adolescents especially before marriage. Christianity considers this as a sin, and Islam does not allow such before marriage. Another factor is positive role models from these minority groups who helps in campaigns and social education to the minority groups on how to avoid these practices and the desire for the adolescents to live like their peer role models.






Music videos are



not especially marketed to teen viewers.


not stereotypical of gender.


slanted towards male audiences.


slanted towards female audiences.


  • not stereotypical of gender.


Music videos are not stereotypical of gender. For instance, music videos can be used in a society to communicate certain ideas about proper behavior to the teens, and also educate them on social and cultural norms. On the other hand, music videos can be used to spread an idea to all people of the community and are not reclined towards either male or female audiences as everyone can listen and watch.





In selecting forms of reliability, which form would best apply when the trait being measured is highly stable?




Alternate forms


  • Test-retest


When selecting the form of reliability, both the nature of the variable being measured and the purpose for which the test is used are two main factors for selecting the best test. Therefore, if the test is administered on stable trait, then test-retest can be used. Test-retest employs the re administration of a single instrument, for checking consistency across time. This test is based on the assumption that the trait being measured is stable over time.





What is the last type or stage of play?


  1. Practice play
  2. Symbolic play
  3. Games with rules
  4. Teacher-directed


  • Games with rules


According to Sayre and Gallagher (2001), there are three categories of play which are functional play, symbolic play and games with rules. The functional play begins during the early years of life when a child consistently practices the action. The second play is symbolic play which is extremely important to a child development. Games with rules is the third category at which the child understand and agree to rules.





Erin is 14 and she doesn't want to go to school today because her skin doesn't look good and she's convinced that her schoolmates will notice and make fun of her. Which aspect of adolescent egocentrism is Erin experiencing?

Personal fable

Imaginary audience

Fight-or-flight response

Top-dog phenomenon


  • Imaginary audience


This is called imaginary audience egocentrism. The adolescent is preoccupied with her own thoughts, appearance and behavior, believing that other people share this preoccupation and she believes that her classmates are intensely interested in everything she does or says. This results to the intense self-consciousness, shyness and need for privacy.






One of the problems associated with asthma is that once patients experience difficulty breathing, they often make their symptoms worse by concentrating on them and/or worrying about them. Consequently, many doctors include relaxation exercises as part of a treatment program to prevent patients from making their asthmatic reactions worse. This example of how our awareness of physiological changes can influence or even cause subsequent emotions is most supportive of which of the following theories of emotion? (3 points)






  • James-Lange


The James-lange emotion theory suggested that emotions are a result of psychological reactions to events. It implies that people have psychological response to stimuli, and the manner in which they react to the stimuli, defines the emotional experience of that individual. Emotional reaction thus depends on how to interpret those physical reactions.






One of the problems associated with asthma is that once patients experience difficulty breathing, they often make their symptoms worse by concentrating on them and/or worrying about them. Consequently, many doctors include relaxation exercises as part of a treatment program to prevent patients from making their asthmatic reactions worse. This example of how our awareness of physiological changes can influence or even cause subsequent emotions is most supportive of which of the following theories of emotion? (3 points)






  • James-Lange


The James-lange emotion theory suggested that emotions are a result of psychological reactions to events. It implies that people have psychological response to stimuli, and the manner in which they react to the stimuli, defines the emotional experience of that individual. Emotional reaction thus depends on how to interpret those physical reactions.






define intelligence in one sentence


  • Intelligence is the quality of mind that include skills to learn from experience, adapt to changes, handle complex concepts and apply knowledge to manipulate the immediate environment.


Intelligence consists of various abilities combined together all of which have in common the general intelligence factor. It entails the ability for abstract thinking, acquires knowledge, adapts to new environmental situations and successfully benefits from experience and instruction. When intelligence is measured in narrow domains, it is called specific intelligence. When the capacity to solve problems and perform activities is measured, this is called fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence is the accumulated knowledge of the world acquired throughout someone's life.





Question 16

  1. What element of the motivation process is explained by intending to work for some period of time to achieve objectives?
  2. Directed
  3. Maintained
  4. Activated
  5. Energized


  • Maintained


Motivation is a force within an individual which stimulates and drives them to achieve certain goals. The elements of motivation includes: Energized - an individual is willing to work hard. Directed - An individual has chosen what to work at. Maintained - An individual intends to work for some period of time so as to achieve specific objectives.




Question 25

  1. Which view holds that behavior is shaped and learned as a result of external environmental stimuli?
  2. The learning theory
  3. The behavioral
  4. The performance
  5. Classical conditioning


  • The behavioral


Behavioral view implies that behavior is learned not innate. It focuses much on scientific and the objective methods of investigation. This approach is concerned with the observable stimulus-response behaviors. As humans interact with the environment, they learn new behaviors either through reinforcement or even punishments. The main role is to provide a response to the stimulus that makes the individual gain the acquired knowledge.



The following are the Answers and explanations

Question 1:

The fact that an object remains the same despite changes in how it is viewed refers to:

  1. object constancy.
  2. object cohesion.
  3. object continuity.
  4. none of these.


  • A. object constancy.


Constancy refers to the perception that an object remains the same despite the change in the image. People who lack this attribute have problem of experiencing extreme anxiety in relationships, which may cause them to leave in fear of abandonment. This brings the argument that something which is "out of sight" does not mean "gone".



_____________ is a developmental disorder characterized by difficulties communicating and interacting with other people, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors, and symptoms that hurt the person's ability to function properly in school, work, and other areas of life.

  1. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  2. none of these
  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder
  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome


  • C. Autism Spectrum Disorder


The disorder is called Autism Spectrum Disorder. This condition is related to brain development whereby the person is unable to effectively socialize with others , resulting to poor communication and social interaction. It begins early in childhood and has no cure. This disorder also results to limited and repetitive patterns of behavior.



Some things that are related to children's theory of mind development include:

  1. engaging in pretend play and having imaginary friends.
  2. all of these.
  3. frequently talking with parents or caregivers about feelings.
  4. having older siblings.


  • B. all of these.


Young children are unable to think about the mental states of others, but as they age, this ability emerges and continues to develop. There are various factors that play a role in development of mind in children, among these includes having other kids and people at home to interact with, their relationships with their parents, playing, pretend, stories among other social interactions.



Central to social cognitive learning theory is the idea that:

  1. explicit reinforcement is necessary for children to learn.
  2. children can only learn through active exploration of their world.
  3. children can only learn through direct social interaction with more skilled peers.
  4. children can learn by watching others be rewarded or punished for their actions, rather than having to experience the reward or punishment directly themselves.


  • D. children can learn by watching others be rewarded or punished for their actions, rather than having to experience the reward or punishment directly themselves.


According to social learning theory of learning process and social behavior, new behaviors can be acquired through observing and imitating others. Although reinforcement plays a key role in learning, it is clear that the best method for children to learn new behaviors by observing and imitating. Therefore, a child can learn a new behavior when they observe someone else do the same and get rewarded.



The ______________ state(s) that first, we learn from our social interactions, and over time, the lessons we learn in social settings become internalized.

  1. general genetic law of cultural development
  2. tools of intellectual adaptation
  3. zone of proximal development
  4. sensorimotor stage of cognitive development


  • A. general genetic law of cultural development


The genetic law of cultural development states that a child's development is embedded in culture and occurs on two planes. The first plane is of social between individuals as they interact. The second is the psychological one whereby the thought learned is internalized by the child. Vygotsky formulated this statement dividing the two planes into commonly known interpsychological category and then the intra-psychological category.



_________ are empty spaces across which neurons communicate, while _________ are the parts of the neuron that receive messages from other neurons.

  1. Synapses; axons
  2. Axons; synapses
  3. Dendrites; synapses
  4. Synapses; dendrites


  • D. Synapses; dendrites


The region between one neuron's axon and the other neuron's dendrites is called a synapse. A neuron has three main parts. There is the axon which transmits the impulse from one neuron to the next neuron. The soma or cell body has mitochondria and other organelles to process and amplify the impulse. Then, there is the dendrite which extend from the cell body and which receives messages from other nerve cells.




The fact that culture influences cognition is captured in one of the truths of cognitive development, which states:

  1. cognitive development is constructed within a social context.
  2. cognitive development involves changes in both domain-general and domain-specific abilities.
  3. cognitive development involves changes in the ways information is represented.
  4. children develop increasing intentional control over their behavior and cognition.


  • A. cognitive development is constructed within a social context.


The five truths of cognitive development includes the fact that cognitive development is constructed within a social context. In regards to this, it implies that the social environment plays a key role in shaping how the child develops. Another fact is that cognitive development proceeds dynamically and is a reciprocal process between internal and external factors.



Social cognition can be defined as:

  1. copying both necessary and unnecessary actions.
  2. understanding the goals of another person but being unable to achieve that goal.
  3. being able to copy another person without understanding that person's motives.
  4. thinking about our own and others' thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviors.


  • D. thinking about our own and others' thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviors.


Social cognition focuses on how people process, store, and apply information regarding other people as well as social situations and what the cognitive processes play in one's social interactions. As a child grows, cognitive development enables them to be aware of their own feelings, thoughts as well as motives and other people's emotions and mental states.



_______ is the least developed sense at birth.

  1. Taste
  2. Hearing
  3. Vision
  4. Smell


  • C. Vision


Infants have poor vision because while at the womb, there is no visible light and the darkness provides no chance for vision to develop. Thus, it is expected that infants vision develop after birth the same hearing does over the years of the baby's life.




_________ is an example of a species-typical behavior in humans.

  1. Writing
  2. Reading
  3. Walking
  4. Going to school


  • C. Walking


Species-typical behaviors are always the product of nervous systems hence created and influenced by species genetic code, social and natural environment. A species-typical behavior also refers to the behavior which is characteristic of all members of a species. In humans, one such behavior is walking. Walking is typical and normal for all humans in regards to evolution and body structure. However, reading, writing and going to school are learned behaviors.




The developmental sequence of Piaget's stages of cognitive development are:

  1. sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operational, and concrete operational.
  2. concrete operational, sensorimotor, preoperational, and formal operational.
  3. preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete operational, and formal operational.
  4. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.


  • D. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.


Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development has four stages, and it argues that a child moves through these four stages while developing mentally. The stages includes the following starting with the first to the last: Sensorimotor stage which begins from birth to age of 2 years. The second stage in the preoperational stage which begins at age 2 years to the age of 7 years. The third stage is concrete operational stage which begins at age 7 to age 11. Lastly, is the formal operational stage which begins at the age of 12 upwards.




According to core knowledge theorists, infants are born with numerosity, which is:

  1. the basic understanding of "more than" or "less than".
  2. the idea that individual objects are cohesive wholes with distinct boundaries.
  3. the ability to quickly determine the number of items in a set without counting.
  4. the understanding that an object continues to exist even if it is out of sight.


  • B. the idea that individual objects are cohesive wholes with distinct boundaries.


Psychologists define numerosity as the number of things in a set. Children are born with no understanding of numerosity, which means that if you gave a child two sets of items, one with 5 items and the other with 4 items, they would consider the two items as same. It is the ability to rapidly tell the approximate number of items in a given visual scene




Research shows that multilingualism has positive effects on ______________.

  1. executive function only.
  2. theory of mind and vocabulary size.
  3. phonological development.
  4. executive function and theory of mind.


  • D. executive function and theory of mind.


STudies have shown that bilinguals and multilinguals have superior performance when compared to monolinguals when performing tasks that tap into executive function. However, the effect on executive function depends so much on which type of task is used. It helps an individual to plan, focus attention, remember and juggle multiple tasks more, all of which play a role in development of mind .





Arnold developed a fear of thunderstorms two summers ago when a small tornado touched down two blocks from where he lived. As the summer progressed and no further tornadoes appeared with thunderstorms, Arnold found that his fear had pretty well disappeared. To his surprise, this summer when the skies started to darken with the first thunderstorm of the year, he found his heart was pounding and he was trembling. This illustrates the classical conditioning process known as


spontaneous recovery.

higher order conditioning.



  • spontaneous recovery.


Spontaneous recovery is the sudden appearance of a behavior that was thought to be extinct. Alnold developed a conditioned response to thunderstorms, but due to less re-occurrence of the same stimulus (thunderstorms), the response became extinct. However, when the same conditions repeat themselves later, the response that was thought to be extinct reappears again and he found his heart pounding and he was trembling. Ivan Pavlov explained this concept as spontaneous recovery.






Four-year-old Marta was caught throwing rocks at the neighbour's dog, behavior that she had been warned by her mother not to do. Subsequently, Marta's mother takes away Marta's tricycle for two days. The removal of the tricycle following Marta's rock-throwing behavior is a

positive (aversive) punishment.

negative (response cost) punishment

negative reinforce.

positive reinforcement


  • negative (response cost) punishment


This is described as response cost or negative punishment. In this type of reinforcement, the behavior is made less frequent by taking away a stimulus as a consequence. Taking away Malta's tricycle is a form of punishment because it will discourage Malta from repeating the same behavior for the fear of losing her tricycle.





In general, we develop associations best if stimuli or events occur close together. Which of the following types of learning seems to happen easily, even if the events occur hours apart?

A: Negative reinforcement

B: Operant conditioning

C: Conditioned taste aversion

D: Punishment


  • B: Operant conditioning


Operant conditioning involves both rewards and punishments. In operant conditioning, an association is made between the behavior and consequence for the behavior. Reinforcement increases the behavior by using either negative reinforcers or positive reinforcers. This conditioning does not require the learning to take place within a short period of time. If after a certain behavior there is a favorable outcome or event, it is more likely for the behavior to be repeated. SImilarly, if after a behavior, an unfavorable outcome or event is removed, it is more likely for the behavior to be repeated.





if a neuron receives many small electrical stimulations the accumulation of those stimulations is called:

(a) temporal contiguity

(b) synthetic perception

(c) gestalt perception

(d) spatial summation


  • (d) spatial summation


This is called spatial summation. It is described as the process by which things add up, and in nervous system, it is used to refer to the adding up of multiple stimuli with each individual stimuli not reaching the threshold but when they combine, generate an action potential. One or more pre-synaptic neurons generate individual excitatory postsynaptic potential.





John has to give his cat Garfield a pill every day. He always opens up the pill bottle (which makes a popping sound) and removes one pill before giving it to Garfield, and he follows this by giving him a treat as a reward. After a while, John notices that when he opens up the pill bottle, Garfield comes running to him right away. In this example, the __________ is the unconditioned stimulus.


A: cat running to John

B: treat

C: sound of the pill bottle opening

D: pill-taking


  • C: sound of the pill bottle opening


In operant conditioning, we have conditioned and unconditioned responses as well as conditioned and unconditioned stimulus. The conditioned stimulus is natural which initially elicit a response, but if this natural stimulus is paired with another neutral stimulus which we will call unconditioned, after some time of learning, the neutral or unconditioned stimulus will elicit the same response as the natural stimulus. Thus, in this case, the sound of the pill bottle opening initially could not cause the cat to respond, but after being paired together with the pill, the cat starts responding to the sound as well which now becomes unconditioned stimulus.





In laboratory experiments, monkeys have an easier time learning to fear pictures of snakes than pictures of flowers. Which principle does this evidence support?


A: equipotentiality

B: latent learning

C: extinction

D: preparedness


  • D: preparedness


This can be explained by using the principle of preparedness. This principle explains the idea that animals and humans are inherently inclined to form associations between certain stimuli and responses. Animals develop phobia more easily to situations or organisms that pose risk to their survival. To the monkey, a picture of another organism like snake would pose more threat than a picture of flower which monkeys do not associate with any risk.




1)   Which of the following statements is true?

  1. Anxiety and stress can be understood according to personality type + somatic disposition
  2. The amount of anxiety an athlete experiences can be addressed with an arousal reduction technique that matches personality type
  3. Coping with anxiety can be understood as a combination of personality style, external influences, and somatic makeup
  4. How an athlete copes with anxiety is more important than how much anxiety she or he experiences


  • How an athlete copes with anxiety is more important than how much anxiety she or he experiences


Our values decide how we as individuals perceive the world around us and when we need to cope with certain situations, it is our values that tell us that the situation is tough. According to Weinberg and Gould (Weinberg & Gould, 1999) on awareness, it is clear that awareness raises our psychological states before controlling thoughts and feelings. It is more important to an individual, how he/she copes when anxiety comes than how much anxiety they experience.





__is an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage.


  • Memory


The memory receives information from all senses in the body, organizes the information, changes it to another form and retrieves it whenever needed. Memory involves three main processes which are encoding, storage, and retrieval. There are several types of memories for example episodic memory, procedural memory etc. There is also short-term memory whereby information is held consciously and long-term memory whereby information is kept permanently.



The two major aspects of people that are studied by personality theorists are

consistency and distinctiveness


Joan is an unfailingly polite person who always considers the feelings of others. This tendency to act in a similar manner across situations is indicative of which of the following qualities of personality?




A durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations is called

a personality trait


_____________ is a statistical procedure used by researchers to identify closely related clusters of variables.

Factor analysis


Which of the following is not one of the "big five" personality traits?

locus of control


People who score high in ___________________ are characterized as outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, and assertive.



People who score high in ___________________ tend to be anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure, and vulnerable.



People who score high in _____________ tend to be sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, and modest.



People who score low in ________________ tend to be suspicious, antagonistic, and aggressive.



People who score high in _______________ tend to be diligent, disciplined, well-organized, and punctual.



Which of the following traits is most likely to be associated with high levels of productivity in a job setting?



Marcos is very quiet and avoids large groups. Some people consider him unfriendly, and he seldom takes a stand or acts assertively. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Macros would probably score

low in extraversion



Janelle is suspicious and uncooperative. Her friends think she is a boastful person who is seldom sympathetic. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Janelle would probably score

low in agreeableness


Julio is extremely dependable and productive, and his friends think he is great at organizing events. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Julio would probably score

high in conscientiousness


Which of the following is not a criticism of the five-factor model of personality?

It overemphasizes the role of unconscious motivation in personality.


Sigmund Freud's method for treating disorders is called



Psychoanalytic theory stresses all of the following except

conscious thought patterns


Id is to pleasure principle as

ego is to reality principle


According to Freud, the aspect of personality that is totally unconscious is the



The portion of the personality that mediates between instinctual demands and the world of reality is the



Finding ways to meet instinctual needs and still take into account the conditions of the external, social world defines the_______________, the basic operating theme of the ________________

reality principle; ego


Sarah is torn between the need to study for an exam and her desire to go out with her friends. She decides that she will go out later only if she completes her studying. This realistic decision reflects the functioning of Sarah's




Which of the following is not characteristic of primary-process thinking?

reality oriented


Primary process thinking is associated with the _______________ and secondary process thinking is associated with the ________________

id; ego


Cari often has temper tantrums and pouts when she can't have her own way. She often behaves impulsively and becomes extremely impatient if she can't have the things that she wants immediately. According to Freud's view of the personality, Cari's personality appears to be dominated by

her id


The superego is Freud's term for

the moral component of personality


Howard sets extremely high standards for both himself and others. He tends to be rigid and inflexible and rarely allows himself to enjoy life. Freud would probably conclude that Howard is dominated by

his superego


Which of the following is not characteristic of secondary-process thinking?



According to Freud, the unconscious can reveal itself through


slips of the tongue



Which of the following is not one of the levels of awareness proposed by Freud?

collective unconscious


According to Freud's theory, repressed sexual desires are most likely to be found in which level of awareness?



Freud ascribed great importance to sexual and aggressive impulses, mainly because

they tend to be routinely frustrated



According to Freud, conflicts centering on which of the following impulses are especially likely to have far-reaching consequences?



The impending possibility of a forbidden impulse getting out of control and being expressed in behavior would be most apt to produce__________________ in the person.



Defense mechanisms combat feelings of anxiety and guilt

through self-deception


Giving self-justifying plausible excuses that hide the real reasons for our behavior defines the defense mechanism known as



The process of pushing distressing thoughts into the unconscious and keeping them there is known as



Attributing one's own thoughts or motives to others defines



Hal is fearful of men who are friendly toward him, convinced that they are all homosexuals attempting to seduce him. Should it be the case that Hal is himself a latent homosexual fearful of admitting this even to himself, we might conclude that he is using the defense mechanisms of repression and



A man who has numerous reasons to hate his mother instead lavishes her with unrealistic amounts of attention and love. He is probably exhibiting the defense mechanism of

reaction formation


Whenever Wanda is denied anything by her husband, she pouts and gives him the silent treatment. This immature way of dealing with reality can be referred to as



John worries about his tendency toward abusing animals, so he joins the Association for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. John's behavior can be viewed as an example of

reaction formation



The defense mechanism of bolstering one's self esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group is referred to as



As an adult, going back to an earlier way of gratifying needs defines



Candice has just joined a sorority as a means of bolstering her self-esteem. Her behavior reflects the use of __________________ as a defense mechanism.



Scott has just been reprimanded by his supervisor. Later on, Scott begins to "stomp around" and throws a tantrum in front of his co-workers. Scott's behavior exemplifies which of the following?



Freud used the term "sexual" in his psychosexual stages of development to mean

any pleasure-giving urge


Failure to resolve conflict at a particular stage of psychosexual development may lead to failure to move forward psychologically, a phenomenon that Freud called



According to Freud, a person may become fixated at a particular psychosexual stage because of

either excessive gratification or excessive frustration of needs


The order of the stages in psychosexual development is

oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital


A Freudian might explain a compulsive smoker's behavior as being the result of fixation at the

oral stage


According to Freud, the crucial event during the anal stage of psychosexual development is

toilet training



The Oedipal complex, of such great importance in Freud's thinking, occurs during the __________________ stage of psychosexual development.



During the latency stage, children

begin to expand their social contacts beyond the immediate family


The Freudian period that begins with puberty is the

genital stage


The idea that a male child desires his mother and fears his father illustrates the

Oedipal complex


Both Carl Jung and Alfred Adler were especially critical of Freud's emphasis on



To differentiate his approach from Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Carl Jung used the name

analytical psychology


Freud's concept of the unconscious is most like Jung's

personal unconscious


What is the name Carl Jung used to identify the level of the unconscious that stores latent memory traces inherited from our ancestral past?

collective unconscious


In Jung's theory, emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning are called



Carl Jung's concept ofthe collective unconscious includes

the presence of archetypes

similarities in the form of myths and dreams throughout the world

possible biologically based human thought forms


Roberto tends to focus on people and things around him and is outgoing, talkative, and friendly. Jung would refer to Roberto as an



A person who is occupied with his own thoughts and feelings, aloof, and contemplative exemplifies what Jung described as the ______________ type.



The sickly child who goes on to become a forceful, physically active adult is engaging in what Adler called



According to Alfred Adler, overcompensation may be found in those who

have an inferiority complex


Having exaggerated feeling of weakness and inadequacy is referred to as

an inferiority complex


The psychodynamic theories of personality have been criticized for which of the following?


lack of testability

inadequate supportive evidence


The theoretical orientation that argues that psychology should study only observable behavior



Research in the behavioral tradition has focused largely on which of the following?



Which of the following terms is least closely associated with Skinner's view of personality?

unconscious motivation


Which of the following definitions of "personality" best reflects the views of B. F. Skinner?

a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations


Albert Bandura's concept of reciprocal determinism is best summarized as

"Environments shape humans and humans shape environments."


In explaining a person's aggressiveness, a social learning theorist would favor which of the following explanations?

observational learning


A social learning theorist would most likely explain the behavior of a spoiled brat in terms of which of the following?

learning through observation and reinforcement


Social learning theory has demonstrated that we are most likely to imitate the behavior of

those whom we like or respect

those whom we perceive as being similar to ourselves

those whom we consider to be attractive or powerful


The belief that one has the ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes is referred to as



Research findings indicate that feelings of greater self-efficacy are associated with which of the following?

greater success in giving up smoking

higher levels of academic performance

enhanced performance in athletic competition


Which of the following parental behaviors is not likely to foster self-efficacy in children?

punitive disciplinary techniques


The fact that we tend to behave differently in different situations has led Walter Mischel to contend that behavior tends to be

situationally specific


Which of the following is not a criticism of the behavioral approach to personality?

use of extensive empirical research


Both the psychoanalytic and behavioral theories of behavior have been criticized for which of the following?

the failure to recognize the unique qualities of human behavior


The approach that stresses the individual's freedom, uniqueness, and growth potential is



The most optimistic view of human nature is found in the

humanistic approach


The term used to refer to an appreciation of an individual's personal, subjective experiences as a way to understand behavior is



Which ofthe following statements is least likely to be made by a humanist?

People are dominated by unconscious conflicts.


According to Carl Rogers, if your self-concept is reasonably accurate, it is said to be

congruent with reality


The collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior is referred to as one's ____________________ ,according to Rogers.



According to Rogers, for a child to develop a healthy personality the parents must

exhibit unconditional love toward the child


According to Carl Rogers, troublesome anxiety is caused by

threats to our self-concept


According to Carl Rogers, people with highly ___________________ self-concepts are especially likely to be plagued by recurrent anxiety.



In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the _________________ needs are considered to be the most basic needs and the first priority.



Your needs to live in a crime-free neighborhood, save money, buy insurance, and have a stable job are examples of which of the following kinds of needs?

safety and security


Imagine a neighborhood in which a hurricane has caused extensive flooding. Many ofthe residents have had their homes damaged or destroyed. At the time, however, the material loss is unimportant as the residents think only of escaping the flood. Maslow would say this is because the residents' _________________ needs are threatened.

safety and security


Your needs for social status and for respect and recognition from others reflect the _______________ needs in Maslow's hierarchy.



Your need to learn all you can about philosophy, and understand the inner workings of our political system are examples of ________________ needs.



What need was Abraham Maslow expressing when he said that "what a man can be, he must be"?

the need to self-actualize


Which of the following is not a characteristic of a self-actualizing person?

having a strong need to affiliate with many people


Awed by the grandeur of nature, the hiker experienced a profound emotional high. Maslow called such experiences

peak experiences


According to Maslow's theory, the self-actualizing person would be least likely to

be uncomfortable when alone or detached


Which of the following is one of the major criticisms of the humanistic approach to personality?

It is too optimistic about human nature.


Which of the following criticisms can be leveled against both the psychoanalytic approach and the humanistic approach to personality?

poor testability


Being sociable, assertive, active, and lively is associated with the higher-order trait of _______________ according to Eysenck.



According to Han Eysenck, which of the following is not considered a higher-order trait?



According to Han Eysenck, _________________ involves being anxious, tense, moody, and low in self-esteem.



According to Han Eysenck, __________________ involves being egocentric, impulsive, cold, and antisocial.



The findings from twin studies indicate that identical twins are much more similar than fraternal twins on which of the following?

all of the Big Five personality traits


Research on genes and personality indicates that the heritability estimates for personality traits are approximately ________________ percent.



Findings from behavioral genetics research indicate that

genetic factors contributed most to similarities


Research on the heritability of personality shows that _______________ appears to have a surprisingly small impact on personality.

shared family environment


According to the evolutionary approach to personality, humans have evolved special sensitivity to variations in the ability to cooperate and collaborate with others, which is closely associated with which of the following Big Five personality traits?



According to the evolutionary approach to personality, humans have evolved special sensitivity to variations in the tendency to be reliable and ethical, which is closely associated with which ofthe following Big Five personality traits?



Which of the following is not one of the main weaknesses in biological approaches to personality?

an overly optimistic view of human nature


The generalized preference for high or low levels of sensory stimulation is referred to as

sensation seeking


Jack is an adventuresome fellow who feels most alive when he is putting his life at risk. Marvin Zuckerman would say that Jack is high in

sensation seeking


All but which of the following are characteristic of high sensation seekers?

low tolerance for stress


The degree to which people attend to and try to control the impression they make on others defines the concept of



Which of the following individuals is most likely to be good at spotting deceptive impression management in other people?

the high self-monitor


Gina is good at presenting herself to a group of persons, is able to detect if someone is trying to manipulate her, and has a difficult time making a genuine emotional commitment. Gina is mostlikely to be classified as

a high self-monitor


Rather than having a few "best friends," Peter tends to select companions based on the event he plans to attend or the activity in which he plans to engage. Peter sounds as if he is

high in self-monitoring


American parents are least likely to teach their children to

be modest about their personal accomplishments


Parents in Asian cultures are most likely to teach their children to

rely on family and friends


A person who is suspicious, aloof, guarded, worrisome, and overly sensitive is likely to score high on which of the following clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)?



A person who is moody, shy, pessimistic, and distressed is likely to score high on which of the following clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPl)?



A person who is shy, withdrawn, reserved, submissive, tense, and inflexible is likely to score high on which of the following clinical scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)?

social introversion


One of the problems with self-report personality inventories is that respondents may answer questions in ways that make them look good. This tendency is called a

social desirability bias


A personality measure that asks you to respond freely to an ambiguous stimulus such as a picture or an inkblot is called a

projective test.


The Thematic Apperception Test is composed of

ambiguous pictures

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Answered on June 19, 2020 7:42 am

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